Rifiuti2 is a rewrite of rifiuti, a tool of identical purpose written by Foundstone.1 Quoting from the original FoundStone page:

Many computer crime investigations require the reconstruction of a subject’s recycle bin. Since this analysis technique is executed regularly, we researched the structure of the data found in the Recycle Bin repository files (INFO2 files). Rifiuti, the Italian word meaning “trash”, was developed to examine the contents of the INFO2 file in the Recycle Bin. … Rifiuti is built to work on multiple platforms and will execute on Windows (through Cygwin), Mac OS X, Linux, and *BSD platforms.

However, since the original rifiuti (last updated 2004) can’t analyze recycle bin from any localized version of Windows (restricted to English), this rewrite effort is born to overcome the limitation. The neccesity arised from a task needed to handle localized Windows during around 2008, and since then the effort was maintained. Later rifiuti2 was extended to cover more functionalities, such as (including but not limited to):

  • Handles oldest (Win95) to newest (Win 10 and Server 2019) recycle bin format
    • Windows 95 – 2003 uses a single index file named INFO or INFO2
    • Vista or above uses one index file for each deleted item
  • 64-bit file size support
  • Supports all localized versions of Windows — both Unicode-based ones and legacy ones (using ANSI code page)
  • Supports output in XML format as well as original tab-delimited text
  • Obscure features such as recycle bin on network share (\\server\share)
  1. Foundstone was later purchased by Mcafee as a security consulting division. Though selected free tools are still available for download under McAfee, rifiuti is not one of them, at the